We reviewed the evidence for whether CBD has significant pharmacological and symptomatic effects at the doses typically found in OTC preparations. We found that most of the evidence for beneficial effects is derived from studies of pure, pharmaceutical grade CBD at relatively high doses. Relatively few studies have examined the effect of OTC CBD preparations, or of CBD at low doses. Thus, at present, there is little evidence that OTC CBD products have health benefits, and their safety has not been investigated. Controlled trials of OTC and low-dose CBD preparations are needed to resolve these issues.
The Weed Distributor Fighting ‘Big Marijuana’
Conclusion This study will clarify the risks involved in driving following CBD use and assist in ensuring the safe use of CBD by drivers. Background Cannabidiol has potential therapeutic benefits for people with psychiatric disorders characterised by reward function impairment. There is existing evidence that cannabidiol may influence some aspects of reward processing. However, it is unknown whether cannabidiol acutely affects brain function underpinning reward anticipation and feedback. Hypotheses We predicted that cannabidiol would augment brain activity associated with reward anticipation and feedback.
However, across the whole brain, we did not find any evidence that cannabidiol altered reward-related brain activity. Moreover, our Bayesian analyses showed that activity in our regions-of-interest was similar following cannabidiol and placebo. Additionally, our behavioural what is CBD good for measures of motivation for reward did not show a significant difference between cannabidiol and placebo. Discussion Cannabidiol did not acutely affect the neural correlates of reward anticipation and feedback in healthy participants.
- Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity.
- In 2018, the World Health Organization recommended that CBD remain unscheduled.
- Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaties.
- A variety such as “Fedora 17” has a cannabinoid profile consistently around 1%, with THC less than 0.3%.
- Several industrial hemp varieties can be legally cultivated in Western Europe.
- This means that although recreational marijuana is legal in the state, CBD cannot legally be sold in food or as a dietary supplement under state law.
Objective Interest in the use of cannabidiol is increasing worldwide as its therapeutic effects are established and legal restrictions moderated. Unlike Δ⁹‐tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹‐THC), CBD does not appear to cause cognitive or psychomotor impairment. However, further assessment of its effects on cognitively demanding day‐to‐day activities, such as driving, is warranted. Here, we describe a study investigating the effects of CBD on simulated driving and cognitive performance. Methods Thirty healthy individuals will be recruited to participate in this randomised, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled crossover trial.
Participants will complete four research sessions each involving two 30‐min simulated driving performance tests completed 45 and 210 min following oral ingestion of placebo or 15, 300, or 1,500 mg CBD. Cognitive function and subjective drug effects will be measured, and blood and oral fluid sampled, at regular intervals. Oral fluid drug testing will be performed using the Securetec DrugWipe® 5S and Dräger DrugTest® 5000 devices to determine whether CBD increases the risk of “false‐positive” roadside tests to Δ⁹‐THC. Noninferiority analyses will test the hypothesis that CBD is no more impairing than placebo.
The Evidence For Cannabidiol Health Benefits
Methods We administered a single 600 mg oral dose of cannabidiol and matched placebo to 23 healthy participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures design. We employed the monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assay the neural correlates of reward anticipation and feedback. We conducted whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses in pre-specified reward-related brain regions. Results The monetary incentive delay task elicited expected brain activity during reward anticipation and feedback, including in the insula, caudate, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex.
Future research should explore the effects of cannabidiol on different components of reward processing, employ different doses and administration regimens, and test its reward-related effects in people with psychiatric disorders. Over the past 5 years, public interest in the potential health benefits of cannabidiol has increased exponentially, and a wide range of over-the-counter preparations of CBD are now available. A substantial proportion of the population appears to have used these products, yet the extent to which they are effective or safe is unclear.